Sonora has borne witness to profound historical changes to the country and has been both host of, and catalyst for key events in the Revolutions and great indigenous struggles, quite apart from its role as a hub for commerce.
This region is studied by archaeologists and historians who continue to find prehistoric remains, very large fossil bones indicating the presence at one time of abounding forests, which consequently served as a hideout and migratory passage-routes for both men and animals.
This land has given shelter to countless European immigrants, Asians, American Indians and families from around the world who seek to find similar habitats as the ones they abandoned. This is how the seeds of technological innovations were planted in the fields. Fruit harvests, mining, farming, industrial processes, iron forging, spinning and weaving came about. New tools to make war accessories also proliferated.
A Brief Account of Our History.
Sonora was established as an entity under federal law entity by the General Congress on October 13, 1830, but it was not until March 14 1831 when that designation became effective and the first authorities took their oaths.
When being created as an "entity", Sonora and Sinaloa were united in the so-called State of the West, formed in 1824 by the Constitutive Act of the Federation.
We are the result of the capitulations held in March 1637, between General Pedro de Perea and the viceroy of New Spain, Duke of Escalona.
General Perea, whose incursions and conquests assured Spanish domination of this region and called the area, "Nueva Andalucía."
The name of Sonora was recognized in 1648.
A great missionary adventure and conquest took place in Sonora at a time when different ethnic groups, whose religious practices varied, were the order of the day. Campaigns of proselytizing and promotion were undertaken with long journeys on horseback over rough and eminently desert places. Violent conflicts with strange groups who preyed upon wanders were the order of the day. Moral and technical training helped estalish the basis for changes to entire populations brought about by the 40 missions, over a 24 year period, by the Jesuit priest, Eusebio Francisco Kino.
Kino was the founder and organizer of the northern missions, known as the “Pimería Alta.” It is noteworthy that, throughout his route, countless churches were built, as part of his great legacy.
Twenty six years after the Consummation of Independence of Mexico, Sonora suffered the loss of a significant part of its territory.
When the war with the United States in 1847 was declared, we lost more than 50 percent of our land, 109, 000, 574 square kilometers, in the Treaty of La Mesilla.
At the time of the Reformation, the state suffered another invasion in March 1865 at the hands of the French Army. The battle, fought in Alamos, became known as "The Battle of Alamos."
Groups of French soldiers also arrived to Hermosillo and were subsequently evicted in 1866.
During these battles, the Republican generals Ignacio Pesquería, Jesus Garcia Morales and Angel Martinez distinguished themselves.
At the time of the Revolution, Sonora was already recognized as the birthplace of the Revolution for being the place where the first labor movement arose as a result of the Cananea Strike of 1906. Later, that uprising would inspire the Rio Blanco strike in the state of Veracruz and then armed struggle in 1910, when the Mexican Revolution began.
Sonoran generals Alvaro Obregon, Abelardo L. Rodriguez, Benjamin Hill and Plutarco Elias Calles, developed the "Plan de Agua Prieta" on April 13, 1920, against President Venustiano Carranza.
From that same year on, four Sonorans occupied the presidency of the Republic: Adolfo de la Huerta in 1920; Alvaro Obregon in the same year; Plutarco Elias Calles in 1924; and Abelardo L. Rodriguez in 1932.
The story of Sonora is filed with highly relevant chapters which speak of a people rich in traditions, effort and perseverance in order overcome the natural challenges.
Our state has inspired music composers, many a hymn and the development of “norteño” groups whose identity are exclusive to their talents and type of music.
Today, Sonora stands out for its modernity and for its combating adverse weather conditions with resounding success.
Sonora enchants visitors with its many tourist areas, the hospitality of its people, gastronomy and traces of history prevailing in buildings, stone carvings, fossils and indigenous traditions which turn this land into a magical place.